Academic Literature

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

  •  “A General Overview on the Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Applications, Mechanisms and Translational Opportunities” Miguel A Ortega et al; 2021 Aug 24;57(9):864. doi: 10.3390/medicina57090864
  • “Hyperbaric oxygen and radiation therapy: a review” E Fernández et al; 2021 Jun;23(6):1047-1053. doi: 10.1007/s12094-020-02513-5
  • “The impact of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on late radiation toxicity and quality of life in breast cancer patients”; Marilot C T Batenburg et al; Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Sep;189(2):425-433. doi: 10.1007/s10549-021-06332-2. Epub 2021 Jul 19.
  • “Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on skin elasticity in irradiated patients”; Karan Pandey metal;Diving Hyperb Med 2022 Sep 30;52(3):208-212. doi: 10.28920/dhm52.3.208-212

Ozone Therapy

  •  “Potentiality of oxygen-Ozonetherapy to improve the health of aging people”; Velio Bocci et al; Curr Aging Sci 2010 Dec;3(3):177-87. doi: 10.2174/1874609811003030177
  • “Ozone as a bioregulator. Pharmacology and toxicology of Ozonetherapy today”; V Bocci; Biol Regul Homeost Agents 1996 Apr-Sep;10(2-3):31-53.
  • “Adjuvant Ozonetherapy in Advanced Head and Neck Tumors: A Comparative Study” Bernardino Clavo et al; Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2004 Dec;1(3):321-325. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neh038. Epub 2004 Oct 16
  •  “Is it true that Ozone is always toxic? The end of a dogma.” Bocci V. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Nov 1;216(3):493-504. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.06.009. Epub 2006 Jun 27
  • “How a calculated oxidative stress can yield multiple therapeutic effects.” Bocci V. Free Radic Res. 2012 Sep;46(9):1068-75. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2012.693609. Epub 2012 May 28

High Dose Vitamin C

1. Bryan Ngo et al, Targeting cancer vulnerabilities with high-dose vitamin C, Nat Rev Cancer 2019 May;19(5):271-282. doi: 10.1038/s41568-019-0135-7.
Polireddy K, Dong R, Reed G, Yu J, Chen P, Williamson S, et al. High dose parenteral Ascorbate inhibited pancreatic Cancer growth and metastasis: mechanisms and a phase I/IIa study. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):17188.

Chen Q, Espey MG, Sun AY, Pooput C, Kirk KL, Krishna MC, et al. Pharmacologic doses of ascorbate act as a prooxidant and decrease growth of aggressive tumor xenografts in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2008;105(32):11105–9.
4. Schoenfeld JD, Sibenaller ZA, Mapuskar KA, Wagner BA, Cramer Morales KL, Furqan M, et al. O 2 · and H 2 O 2 Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. Cancer Cell. 2017;31(4):487–500.e8.
5. Takahashi H, Mizuno H, Yanagisawa A. High dose intravenous vitamin C improves quality of life in cancer patients. Pers Med Universe. 2012;1(1):49–53.
Vollbracht C, Schneider B, Leendert V, Weiss G, Auerbach L, Beuth J. Intravenous vitamin C administration improves quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemo/radiotherapy and aftercare: results of a retrospective, multicentre, epidemiological cohort study in Germany. In Vivo. 2011;25(6):983–90.

Yeom CH, Jung GC, Song KJ. Changes of terminal Cancer patients’ healthrelated quality of life after high dose vitamin C administration. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22(1):7.

Agathocleous M, Meacham CE, Burgess RJ, Piskounova E, Zhao Z, Crane GM, et al. Ascorbate regulates haematopoietic stem cell function and leukaemogenesis. Nature. 2017;549(7673):476–81.

BonillaPorras AR, JimenezDelRio M, VelezPardo C. Vitamin K3 and vitamin C alone or in combination induced apoptosis in leukemia cells by a similar oxidative stress signalling mechanism. Cancer Cell Int. 2011;11(1):19.

Cimmino L, Dolgalev I, Wang Y, Yoshimi A, Martin GH, Wang J, et al. Res toration of TET2 Function Blocks Aberrant SelfRenewal and Leukemia Progression. Cell. 2017;170(6):1079–1095.e20.

Iamsawat S, Tian L, Daenthanasanmak A, Wu Y, Nguyen HD, Bastian D, et al. Vitamin C stabilizes CD81 iTregs and enhances their therapeutic potential in controlling murine GVHD and leukemia relapse. Blood Adv. 2019;3(24):4187–201.

Mingay M, Chaturvedi A, Bilenky M, Cao Q, Jackson L, Hui T, et al. Vita min Cinduced epigenomic remodelling in IDH1 mutant acute myeloid leukaemia. Leukemia. 2018;32(1):11–20.

Aguilera O, MuñozSagastibelza M, Torrejón B, BorreroPalacios A, del PuertoNevado L, MartínezUseros J, et al. Vitamin C uncouples the Warburg metabolic switch in KRAS mutant colon cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7(30):47954–65.

Brandt KE, Falls KC, Schoenfeld JD, Rodman SN, Gu Z, Zhan F, et al. Augmentation of intracellular iron using iron sucrose enhances the toxicity of pharmacological ascorbate in colon cancer cells. Redox Biol. 2018;14(July 2017):82–7

CenigaonandiaCampillo A, SernaBlasco R, GómezOcabo L, Solanes Casado S, BañosHerraiz N, Del PuertoNevado L, et al. Vitamin C activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) targeting the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in hypoxic KRAS mutant colon cancer. Theranostics. 2021;11(8):3595–606.

Mamede AC, Pires AS, Abrantes AM, Tavares SD, Gonçalves AC, Casalta Lopes JE, et al. Cytotoxicity of ascorbic acid in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (WiDr): in vitro and in vivo studies. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(7):1049–57.

Nakanishi K, Hiramoto K, Ooi K. Highdose vitamin C exerts its anti cancer effects in a Xenograft model of Colon Cancer by suppressing angiogenesis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2021;44(6):884–7.

Pires AS, Marques CR, Encarnação JC, Abrantes AM, Mamede AC, Laranjo M, et al. Ascorbic acid and colon cancer: an oxidative stimulus to cell death depending on cell profile. Eur J Cell Biol. 2016;95(6–7):208–18.

Wang G, Yin T, Wang Y. In vitro and in vivo assessment of highdose vitamin C against murine tumors. Exp Ther Med. 2016;12(5):3058–62.

Yun J, Mullarky E, Lu C, Bosch KN, Kavalier A, Rivera K, et al. Vitamin C selectively kills KRAS and BRAF mutant colorectal cancer cells by target ing GAPDH. Science (80 ). 2015;350(6266):1391–6.

Nakanishi K, Hiramoto K, Sato EF, Ooi K. Highdose vitamin C adminis tration inhibits the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells in mice ovary. Biol Pharm Bull. 2021;44(1):75–81.

Chen XY, Chen Y, Qu CJ, Pan ZH, Qin Y, Zhang X, et al. Vitamin C induces human melanoma A375 cell apoptosis via Bax and Bcl2mediated mitochondrial pathways. Oncol Lett. 2019;18(4):3880–6.

Kang JS, Cho D, Kim YI, Hahm E, Yang Y, Kim D, et al. Lascorbic acid (vitamin C) induces the apoptosis of B16 murine melanoma cells via a caspase8?Independent pathway. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2003;52(11):693–8.

Mustafi S, Sant DW, Liu ZJ, Wang G. Ascorbate induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by suppressing Clusterin expression. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):3671.

Serrano OK, Parrow NL, Violet PC, Yang J, Zornjak J, Basseville A, et al. Antitumor effect of pharmacologic ascorbate in the B16 murine mela noma model. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;87:193–203.

Du J, Martin SM, Levine M, Wagner BA, Buettner GR, Wang S, et al. Mechanisms of Ascorbateinduced cytotoxicity in pancreatic Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(2):509–20.

Pollard HB, Levine MA, Eidelman O, Pollard M. Pharmacological ascorbic acid suppresses syngeneic tumor growth and metastases in hormone refractory prostate cancer. In Vivo. 2010;24(3):249–55.

Li Z, He P, Luo G, Shi X, Yuan G, Zhang B, et al. Increased Tumoral micro environmental pH improves cytotoxic effect of pharmacologic ascorbic acid in castrationresistant prostate Cancer cells. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:570939.

Chen P, Yu J, Chalmers B, Drisko J, Yang J, Li B, et al. Pharmacologi cal ascorbate induces cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells through ATP depletion and induction of autophagy. AntiCancer Drugs. 2012;23(4):437–44.
30. Ramezankhani B, Taha MF, Javeri A. Vitamin C counteracts miR302/367in duced reprogramming of human breast cancer cells and restores their invasive and proliferative capacity. J Cell Physiol. 2019;234(3):2672–82.
Xu Y, Guo X, Wang G, Zhou C. Vitamin C inhibits metastasis of peritoneal tumors by preventing spheroid formation in ID8 murine epithelial peritoneal Cancer model. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:645.

Gregoraszczuk EL, Zajda K, Tekla J, Respekta N, Zdybał P, Such A. Vitamin C supplementation had no side effect in noncancer, but had antican cer properties in ovarian cancer cells. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2020;3:1–11.

Lv H, Wang C, Fang T, Li T, Lv G, Han Q, et al. Vitamin C preferentially kills cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma via SVCT2. npj Precis Oncol. 2018;2(1):1.

Alyoussef A, AlGayyar MMH. Cytotoxic and partial hepatoprotective activity of sodium ascorbate against hepatocellular carcinoma through inhibition of sulfatase2 in vivo and in vitro. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;103:362–72.

Volta V, Ranzato E, Martinotti S, Gallo S, Russo MV, Mutti L, et al. Preclini cal Demonstration of Synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND) Com bination as a Potential Treatment for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. McCormick DL, editor. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58051.

Ranzato E, Biffo S, Burlando B. Selective Ascorbate toxicity in malignant mesothelioma. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44(1):108–17.

Su X, Shen Z, Yang Q, Sui F, Pu J, Ma J, et al. Vitamin C kills thyroid cancer cells through ROSdependent inhibition
of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways via distinct mechanisms. Theranostics. 2019;9(15):4461–73.

Tronci L, Serreli G, Piras C, Frau DV, Dettori T, Deiana M, et al. Vitamin C cytotoxicity and its effects in redox homeostasis and energetic metabolism in papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Antioxidants. 2021;10(5):809.

Zhou J, Chen C, Chen X, Fei Y, Jiang L, Wang G. Vitamin C promotes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in Oral squamous cell carcinoma. Front Oncol. 2020;10:976.

Deubzer B, Mayer F, Kuçi Z, Niewisch M, Merkel G, Handgretinger R,et al. H2O2mediated cytotoxicity of
pharmacologic Ascorbate concen trations to neuroblastoma cells: potential role of lactate and ferritin. Cell Physiol
Biochem. 2010;25(6):767–74.

Castro M,Carson G, McConnell M, Herst P. High dose Ascorbate causes both Genotoxic and metabolic stress in Glioma cells. Antioxidants. 2017;6(3):58.

Gokturk D, Kelebek H, Ceylan S, Yilmaz DM. The effect of ascorbic acid over the Etoposide and Temozolomidemediated cytotoxic ity in Glioblastoma cell culture: a molecular study. Turk Neurosurg. 2018;28(1):13–8.

Campbell EJ, Dachs GU. Current limitations of murine models in oncol ogy for Ascorbate research. Front Oncol. 2014;4:282.

Campbell EJ, Vissers MCM, Wohlrab C, Hicks KO, Strother RM, BOzonet SM, et al. Pharmacokinetic and anticancer properties of high dose ascorbate in solid tumours of ascorbatedependent mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;99:451–62.

Chen P, Stone J, Sullivan G, Drisko JA, Chen Q. Anticancer effect of pharmacologic ascorbate and its interaction with supplementary par enteral glutathione in preclinical cancer models. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(3):681–7.

Taper HS, Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Summers JL, Calderon PB. Inhibition of the development of metastases by dietary vitamin C:K 3 combination. Life Sci. 2004;75(8):955–67.

Alessandro Magrì et al: High-dose vitamin C enhances cancer immunotherapy: Sci Transl Med 2020 Feb 26;12(532):eaay8707. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aay8707.

Franziska Böttger et al. High-dose intravenous vitamin C, a promising multi-targeting agent in the treatment of cancer: J Exp Cain Cancer Res 2021 Oct 30;40(1):343. doi: 10.1186/s13046-021-02134-y.

Manuela Giansanti et al: High-Dose Vitamin C: Preclinical Evidence for Tailoring Treatment in Cancer Patients Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;13(6):1428. doi: 10.3390/cancers13061428.

References for IVC monotherapy in palliative care and quality of life (EOL)

Polireddy K, Dong R, Reed G, Yu J, Chen P, Williamson S, et al. High dose parenteral Ascorbate inhibited pancreatic Cancer growth and metasta sis: mechanisms and a phase I/IIa study. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):17188.

Takahashi H, Mizuno H, Yanagisawa A. Highdose intravenous vitamin C improves quality of life in cancer patients. Pers Med Universe. 2012;1(1):49–53.

Vollbracht C, Schneider B, Leendert V, Weiss G, Auerbach L, Beuth J. Intravenous vitamin C administration improves quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemo/radiotherapy and aftercare: results of a retrospective, multicentre, epidemiological cohort study in Germany. In Vivo. 2011;25(6):983–90.

Yeom CH, Jung GC, Song KJ. Changes of terminal Cancer patients’ healthrelated quality of life after high dose vitamin C administration. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22(1):7.

Intravenous Mistletoe

1. Kienle G., Kiene H. (2003) Verträglichkeit, Nebenwirkungen, Überempfindlichkeitsreaktionen, Toxizität. In: Kienle G., Kiene H., Die Mistel in der Onkologie. Fakten und konzeptionelle Grundlagen. Stuttgart: Schattauer 2003, 591–607.
2. Büssing A: Biological and pharmacological properties of Viscum album L. In Büssing A (Ed): Mistletoe – The Genus Viscum. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 124-182 (2000).
3. Kienle GS, Kiene H, Albonico HU: Anthroposophic Medicine: Effectiveness, Utility, Costs, Safety. Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer Verlag; 2006.
4. Struh CM, Jager S, Schempp CM, et al. A novel triterpene extract from mistletoe induces rapid apoptosis in murine B16.F10 melanoma cells. Phytother Res. Oct 2012;26(10):1507-1512. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4604
5. Beuth J, Ko HL, Schneider H, et al. Intratumoral application of standardized mistletoe extracts down regulates tumor weight via decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and necrosis in a murine model. Anticancer Res. Nov-Dec 2006;26(6B):4451-4456.
6. Shen JJ, Chiang MS, Kuo ML, et al. Partially purified extract and viscolin from Viscum coloratum attenuate airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. J Ethnopharmacol. Jun 1 2011;135(3): 646-653. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.03.065
7. Troger W, Galun D, Reif M, et al. Viscum album [L.] extract therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer: a randomised clinical trial on overall survival. Eur J Cancer. Dec 2013;49(18):3788-3797. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.06.043
8. Troger W, Galun D, Reif M, et al. Quality of life of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer during treatment with mistletoe: a randomized controlled trial. Dtsch Arztebl Int. Jul 21 2014;111(29-30):493-502, 433 p following 502.
9. Bar-Sela G, Wollner M, Hammer L, et al. Mistletoe as complementary treatment in patients with advanced non- small- cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin-based combinations: a randomised phase II study. Eur J Cancer. Mar 2013;49(5):1058-1064. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.11.007
10. Friedel WE, Matthes H, Bock PR, et al. Systematic evaluation of the clinical effects of supportive mistletoe treatment within chemo- and/or radiotherapy protocols and long-term mistletoe application in nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma: multicenter, controlled, observational cohort study. J Soc Integr Oncol. Fall 2009;7(4): 137-145.
11. Troger W, Zdrale Z, Stankovic N, et al. Five-year follow-up of patients with early stage breast cancer after a randomized study comparing additional treatment with Viscum album (L.) extract to chemotherapy alone. Breast Cancer (Auckl). 2012;6:173-180. doi: 10.4137/bcbcr.s10558
12. Ostermann T, Raak C, Bussing A. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador): a systematic literature review. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:451. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-451
13. Grossarth-Maticek R, Kiene H, Baumgartner SM, et al. Use of Iscador, an extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album), in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study. Altern Ther Health Med. May-Jun 2001;7(3):57-66, 68-72, 74-56 passim.
14. Grossarth-Maticek R, Ziegler R. Randomised and non-randomised prospective controlled cohort studies in matched- pair design for the long-term therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador): a re-analysis. Eur J Med Res. Nov 30 2006;11(11):485-495.
15. Bar-Sela G, Haim N. Abnoba-viscum (mistletoe extract) in metastatic colorectal carcinoma resistant to 5- fluorouracil and leucovorin-based chemotherapy. Med Oncol. 2004;21(3):251-254. doi: 10.1385/MO:21:3:251
16. Kleeberg UR, Suciu S, Brocker EB, et al. Final results of the EORTC 18871/DKG 80-1 randomised phase III trial. rIFN-alpha2b versus rIFN-gamma versus ISCADOR M versus observation after surgery in melanoma patients with either high-risk primary (thickness >3 mm) or regional lymph node metastasis. Eur J Cancer. Feb 2004;40(3): 390-402.
17. Steuer-Vogt MK, Bonkowsky V, Ambrosch P, et al. The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe treatment programme in resected head and neck cancer patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Eur J Cancer. Jan 2001;37(1):23-31.
18. Rose A, El-Leithy T, vom Dorp F, et al. Mistletoe Plant Extract in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a Phase Ib/IIa Single Group Dose Escalation Study. J Urol. Oct 2015;194(4):939-943.
19. Cho JS, Na KJ, Lee Y, et al. Chemical Pleurodesis Using Mistletoe Extraction (ABNOVAviscum((R)) Injection) for Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;22(1):20-26.
20. Beuth J, Schneider B, Schierholz JM. Impact of complementary treatment of breast cancer patients with standardized mistletoe extract during aftercare: a controlled multicenter comparative epidemiological cohort study. Anticancer Res. Jan-Feb 2008;28(1b):523-527.
21. Mansky PJ, Wallerstedt DB, Sannes TS, et al. NCCAM/NCI Phase 1 Study of Mistletoe Extract and Gemcitabine in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:964592. doi: 10.1155/2013/964592
22. Franz H, Ziska P, Kindt A: Isolation and properties of three lectins from mistletoe ( Viscum album L.). Biochemical Journal 1981, 195:481-484.
23. Winterfeld K, Bijnen AB: Viscotoxin, ein neuer Inhaltsstoff der Mistel ( Viscum album L.). Liebigs Ann Chem 1948, 561:107- 115.
24. Urech K, Scher JM, Hostanska K, Becker H: Apoptosis inducing activity of viscin, a lipophilic extract from Viscum album L. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2005, 57 101-109.
25. Winterfeld K, Kronenthaler A: Zur Chemie des blutdrucksenkenden Bestandteils der Mistel. (Viscum album). Arch Pharm 1942, 280:103-115.
26. Mueller EA, Anderer FA: A Viscum album oligosaccharide activating human natural cytotoxicity is an interferon gamma inducer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1990, 32:221-227.
27. Klett CY, Anderer FA: Activation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity of human blood monocytes by a low molecular weight component from Viscum album extract. Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research 1989, 39 (II)(12):1580-1585.
28. Struh CM, Jager S, Kersten A, Schempp CM, Scheffler A, Martin SF: Triterpenoids amplify antitumoural effects of mistletoe extracts on murine B16.f10 melanoma in vivo. PLoS One 2013, 8(4):e62168.
29. Delebinski CI, Jaeger S, Kemnitz-Hassanin K, Henze G, Lode HN, Seifert GJ: A new development of triterpene acid- containing extracts from Viscum album L. displays synergistic induction of apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Cell Prolif 2012, 45(2):176-187.
30. Kleinsimon S, Kauczor G, Jaeger S, Eggert A, Seifert G, Delebinski C: ViscumTT induces apoptosis and alters IAP expression in osteosarcoma in vitro and has synergistic action when combined with different chemotherapeutic drugs. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017, 17(1):26.
31. Twardziok M, Kleinsimon S, Rolff J, Jager S, Eggert A, Seifert G, Delebinski CI: Multiple Active Compounds from Viscum album L. Synergistically Converge to Promote Apoptosis in Ewing Sarcoma. PLoS One 2016, 11(9):e0159749.
32. Saller R., Kramer S., Iten F., Melzer J. (2005) Unerwünschte Wirkungen der Misteltherapie bei Tumourpatien- ten – Eine systematische Übersicht. In: Scheer R., Bauer R., Becker H., Fintelmann V., Kemper F. H., Schil- cher H. (Hrsg.), Fortschritte in der Misteltherapie: Aktueller Stand der Forschung und klinische Anwendung. Essen: KVC Verlag 2005, 367–403.
33. Urech et al.: Triterpenes of mistletoe (VIscum album) in the “bird-lime” Viscin and its antiprolifertive activity. In Scheer R et al (Ed): Fortschritte in Der Misteltherapie. KVC Verlag, Essen, 133-144 (2005)
34. Melzer J, Iten F, Hostanska K, et al. Efficacy and safety of mistletoe preparations (Viscum album) for patients with cancer diseases. A systematic review. Forsch Komplementmed. Aug 2009;16(4):217-226. doi: 10.1159/000226249
35. Goebell PJ, Otto T, Suhr J, et al. Evaluation of an unconventional treatment modality with mistletoe lectin to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: a randomized phase II trial. J Urol. Jul 2002;168(1):72-75.
36. Elluru SR, Duong van Huyen JP, Delignat S, et al. Induction of maturation and activation of human dendritic cells: a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:161. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-161
37. Delebinski CI, Jaeger S, Kemnitz-Hassanin K, et al. A new development of triterpene acid-containing extracts from Viscum album L. displays synergistic induction of apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Cell Prolif. Apr 2012;45(2):176-187. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2011.00801.
38. Struh CM, Jager S, Kersten A, et al. Triterpenoids amplify anti-tumoral effects of mistletoe extracts on murine B16.f10 melanoma in vivo. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62168. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062168
39. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Mistletoe treatment for cancer review of controlled trials in humans. Phytomedicine. Dec 1994;1(3):255-260. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(11)80073-5
40. Lyu SY, Park WB. Effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album coloratum) on proliferation and cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T-lymphocytes. Arch Pharm Res. Oct 2007;30(10): 1252-1264.
41. Weissenstein U, Kunz M, Urech K, et al. Interaction of standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts with chemotherapeutic drugs regarding cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med.2014;14:6. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-6
42. Engdal S, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.Phytother Res. Jul 2009;23(7):906-912. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2750
43. Huber R, Eisenbraun J, Miletzki B, et al. Pharmacokinetics of natural mistletoe lectins after subcutaneous injection.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. Sep 2010;66(9):889-897. doi: 10.1007/s00228-010-0830-5
44. Schad F, Atxner J, Buchwald D, et al. Intratumoral Mistletoe (Viscum album L) Therapy in Patients WithUnresectable Pancreas Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis. Integr Cancer Ther. Jul 2014;13(4):332-340.
45. Steele ML, Axtner J, Happe A, et al. Use and safety of intratumoral application of European mistletoe (Viscumalbum L) preparations in Oncology. Integr Cancer Ther. Mar 2015;14(2):140-148.
46. Bussing A, Stumpf C, Troger W, et al. Course of mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes in cancer patients treated withViscum album extracts. Anticancer Res. Jul-Aug 2007;27(4C):2903-2910.
47. Steele ML, Axtner J, Happe A, et al. Adverse Drug Reactions and Expected Effects to Therapy with SubcutaneousMistletoe Extracts (Viscum album L.) in Cancer Patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat
Med.2014;2014:724258. doi: 10.1155/2014/724258 Related articles:
48. Huber R, Ludtke R, Klassen M, et al. Effects of a mistletoe preparation with defined lectin content on chronichepatitis C: an individually controlled cohort study. Eur J Med Res. Sep 28 2001;6(9):399-405.
49. Horneber MA, Bueschel G, Huber R, et al. Mistletoe therapy in oncology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2008(2):CD003297. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003297.pub2
50. Bar-Sela G. White-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L.) as complementary treatment in cancer: Does it help? Eur JIntegr Med. 2011;3:e55-e62.
51. de Giorgio A, Stebbing J. Mistletoe: for cancer or just for Christmas? Lancet Oncol. Dec 2013;14(13):1264-1265.doi: 10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70560-6
52. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. Mar 2002;109(3):227-235.
53. Evens ZN, Stellpflug SJ. Holiday plants with toxic misconceptions. West J Emerg Med. Dec 2012;13(6):538-542.doi: 10.5811/westjem.2012.8.12572
54. Rosell S, Samuelsson G. Effect of mistletoe viscotoxin and phoratoxin on blood circulation. Toxicon. Aug1966;4(2):107-110.
55. Finall AI, McIntosh SA, Thompson WD. Subcutaneous inflammation mimicking metastatic malignancy induced by injection of mistletoe extract. BMJ. Dec 23 2006;333(7582):1293-1294. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39044.460023.BE 56. Hall AH, Spoerke DG, Rumack BH. Assessing mistletoe toxicity. Ann Emerg Med. Nov 1986;15(11):1320 1323.
57. Kim HJ, Kim H, Ahn JH, et al. Liver injury induced by herbal extracts containing mistletoe and kudzu. J Altern Complement Med. Mar 2015;21(3):180-185.


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Intravenous Helleborus

  •  “Bufadienolides and ecdysteroids from the whole plants of Helleborus niger and their cytotoxicity.” Yokosuka A, et al. J Nat Med. 2021 Mar;75(2):393-402. doi: 10.1007/s11418-021-01481-6. Epub 2021 Jan 27
  • “Comparative Evaluation of the Potential Antitumor of Helleborus purpurascens in Skin and Breast Cancer.” Pilut C et al; Plants (Basel). 2022 Jan 12;11(2):194. doi: 10.3390/plants11020194
  •  “Two new bufadienolides from the rhizomes of Helleborus thibetanus with inhibitory activities against prostate cancer cells.” Cheng W et al; Nat Prod Res. 2014;28(12):901-8. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2014.891200. Epub 2014 Apr 4
  •  “Minor regression and long-time survival (56 months) in a patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma under Viscum album and Helleborus niger extracts-a case report.” Werthmann PG et al; J Thorac Dis. 2017 Dec;9(12):E1064-E1070. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.11.56
  •  “Study of potent cytotoxic activity of Helleborus cyclophyllus Boiss against a human adenocarcinoma cell line.” Yfanti P et al; Cytotechnology. 2020 Oct 9;72(6):819-31. doi: 10.1007/s10616-020-00425-4